Manufacturers now integrate more advanced features, such as video recording, GPS receivers, data storage, and security mechanisms into the traditional cellphone. Also included in this topic is the basis of computer networks, wherein many different operating systems are able to communicate via different protocols. This could be a prelude to artificial intelligence networks on the Internet eventually leading to a powerful superintelligence[2] via a technological singularity. Despite the utility of bibliometric analysis in mapping the intellectual norms of a research area, some scholars (e.g., Edge, 1977) have raised concerns about its lack of authentic representation of intellectual value.

  1. Overall in the narrow OSN research, the boundary of topical interests and theoretical frameworks was blurred, presenting opportunities for cross-fertilization in communication research.
  2. This Resolution brings a thorough awareness of culture’s role as a source of stability, inclusion, driver of reconciliation, and resilience.
  3. Papers in this cluster were more dispersed than papers in the other five clusters, and some were even scattered in other clusters.
  4. In other words, quality education is most effective if it responds to a place and the community’s cultural context and exactitudes.
  5. The combined forces of technology and human nature will ultimately take a stronger hand in plurality than any laws Congress can invent.”[16] The new media companies claimed that the old media would be absorbed fully and completely into the orbit of the emerging technologies.

Telecommunication has changed from a world of scarcity to one of seemingly limitless capacity. Fixed and mobile operators were, for most of the 1990s, independent companies. Even when the same organization marketed both products, these were sold and serviced independently. Similar to the observation of the broad OSN research, these results reinforced the results from the bibliographic coupling analysis by revealing the convergence of different sub-fields of communication in establishing the conceptual structure of narrow OSN scholarship.

Models of access to ICT

The receiver decodes or tries to understand the meaning of the sender’s message by breaking it down into symbols to give the proper feedback. The message receiver must understand a message based on his existing orientations shaped by his own culture. Even the messages that he picks are selected to conform to his existing preconceptions. This is the information content the sender wants to share with his receivers. A French man may see nothing wrong in his wife wearing a very skimpy bikini and other men ogling at her at a public beach. His counterpart from Saudi Arabia will be upset if other men leer at his wife.

Study objectives

They can do these because of Aririguzoh’s (2004) observation that the press impacts the political and socio-cultural sub-systems. The narrow OSN research, however, exhibits a relatively consistent pattern of boundary spanning. Specifically, the results show that the boundaries between clusters are blurred in the bibliographic coupling network, indicating the integration of a shared set of social network theories and social network analysis methods across diverse communication contexts. Such integration may derive from the advantage of the social network approach in bridging different sub-disciplines of communication as well as different disciplines.

Messages may assume different meanings in different situations for other people. As Katz (1959) has written, interpersonal relationships influence communication. To make meaning out of messages and improve human relationships, it is necessary to understand that content and context may not represent the same thing to people in different situations. Waever (2004, p. 198) states that “things do not have meaning in and of themselves, they only become meaningful in discourse.” Since people’s perspectives are different, it becomes extremely difficult to form a rigid basis on specific ideas. Discursive analysis inspects the ways individuals construct events by evaluating language usage in writing, speech, conversation, or symbolic communication (Edwards, 1997; Harre and Gillet, 1994).

Internet

Communication is the field in which people use messages to generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels, and media. This discipline studies the effective and ethical practice of human communication (Saracevic, 1995). Some common research topics addressed by researchers in these three domains include human interaction with communication technology, diffusion of innovations, information seeking behavior, information systems, and the information society (Saracevic, 1995). Convergence is a global marketplace dynamic in which different companies and sectors are being brought together, both as competitors and collaborators, across traditional boundaries of industry and technology.

The information and knowledge professions can be best described as one that deals with data and information throughout their lifecycle from creation to disposal with the objective of adding value in the form of actionable knowledge. According to Bates (2015), the information discipline is a unique field that does not fit in the spectrum of traditional disciplines. She referred to the information discipline as a meta-discipline field like education and philosophy. Such disciplines deal with a body of knowledge from different perspectives and from a particular orientation. The idea stems from the fact that data and information are not unique and part of every discipline where there is a need to apply the same method and techniques for collecting, organizing, storing, retrieving, and processing information for further action. Every profession has both academic disciplinary aspects and professional practice aspects.

In 1999, UNESCO and the World Bank held the Inter-governmental Conference, Culture Counts, in Florence. Here, ‘cultural capital’ was emphasized as the tool for sustainable development and economic growth (UNESCO, 1999). In other words, quality education is most effective if it responds to a place and the community’s cultural context and exactitudes.

The latter describes the study of a network with a well-defined network boundary and membership, documenting the presence or absence of all possible relations among members in the network and their strength. In sum, these two approaches shed light on the relational and structural embeddedness inherent in OSNs. The transformation of library science education over the years has been shaped by the need to provide services explain the information and communication professions: convergence and divergences. to a diverse group of people with different needs and different subject backgrounds. The transformation of the library science and information science profession is resulting in more disciplines emerging and converging at the same time. The recent development in newly related fields, such as data science, data analytics, data curation, and knowledge management, can be seen as emerging and growing disciplines.

Because of the war, a massive number of technical reports and documents were produced to record the research and development activities surrounding weaponry production. “Information explosion” became a challenging issue and it caused increasing attention from researchers to think out how to develop information technology to provide solutions. Typically, information representation can be completed via any combination of the following means—abstracting, indexing, categorization, summarization, and extraction. Information needs to be represented before the “Information Retrieval (IR)” procedure can be implemented. Originating in the field of documentation, the 1937 funding of the American Documentation Institute caused the fields of library science and information science to begin to coalesce in America. Early scholars of Information Science (IS) had a background in science and industry, and information scientists aimed to solve the problems of managing large amounts of data and information resources.

In a world dominated by convergence, many traditional products, services and types of companies will become less relevant, but a stunning array of new ones is possible. An array of technology developments act as accelerators of convergence, including mobility, analytics, cloud, digital and social networks. As a disruptive force, convergence is a threat to the unprepared, but a tremendous growth opportunity for companies that can out-innovate and out-execute their ever-expanding list of competitors under dramatically new marketplace rules. With convergence, lines are blurred as companies diversify outside of their original markets. Mobile phone usage broadens dramatically, enabling users to make payments online, watch videos, or even adjusting their home thermostat while away at work.

We named the clusters (see Figure 2a and the Online Appendix) based on the full text of their most important articles (i.e., weighted degree centrality), or papers that share common references with many other primary papers in the corpus. First, three clusters, social capital and community participation online and offline, mobilization and organization of online collective action, and social movement and political participation had the largest cluster sizes and occupied the central position in the network. This indicates the popularity of the study of the processes and outcomes of social relationships in extant OSN research. A similar overlapping pattern was observed between the research on social capital and community participation online and offline and SNS and impression management. This suggests there is cross-fertilization between the sub-disciplines of communication in their theoretical frameworks and topical interests. Garton et al. (1997) advocated for the utility of a social network approach to the study of OSNs.

Garfinkel (1967) explains this construction as the common-sense actions of ordinary people based on their practical considerations and judgments of what they feel are intelligible and accountable to others. According to Keller (2011), a peoples’ sense of reality combines their routinized interactions and the meanings they attach to objects, actions, and events. It is in this understanding of the natural use of language that some barriers to effective cross-cultural communication can be reduced. Particularly in initial forms, converged devices are frequently less functional and reliable than their component parts (e.g., a mobile phone’s web browser may not render some web pages correctly, due to not supporting certain rendering methods, such as the iPhone browser not supporting Flash content). In the mid 20th century, television converged the technologies of movies and radio, and television is now being converged with the mobile phone industry and the Internet. Newer mobile phones feature cameras, and can hold images, videos, music, and other media.

For example an IGNOU student sitting at the study centre can engage in a discussion with the subject expert at the University centre also by viewing him on the TV screen. Another example is how some official web sites invite audience to vote and decide what is being broadcasted or a viewer can a ask a question to the anchor of a programme while it is being broadcasted either in TV or radio. “Information Science” is a field that is concerned with information processing and information representation. At the heart of the field, issues such as representation (abstracting, indexing, classification, summarization, and extraction), information system design and information retrieval, system optimization, accessibility, and usability. Borko (1968) stated that, “Information Science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability” (p. 3).

Supplementary data

It was closely connected to the civic engagement and social movement and audience and network analysis clusters. This suggests that OSN research benefits from the integration of various research traditions. For co-word analysis, we used natural language processing and multiple correspondence analysis, a type of dimensionality reduction technique, among keywords that have appeared at least 15 times across all primary papers, followed by K-means clustering techniques. Bates (2015) argued that information science needed to be seen as a different type of discipline, in comparison to the usual array of disciplines. She described information science as a meta-discipline like education and philosophy. The use of the information domain and knowledge domain interchangeably illustrates the inseparable relationship between information and knowledge.

As a result, a new generation of information systems developed including full text databases, document management systems, hypermedia, multimedia, and virtual reality. The ability to scan, store, and display images of documents on the screen revolutionized the way information is stored and accessed. Also, the advent of the Internet and the web https://1investing.in/ in the 1990s made global access to information a reality. Access to information on the Web was made possible by the development of hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), the hypertext markup language (HTML), and web browsers. Internet search engines were developed to provide efficient and fast methods of locating and retrieving information.

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